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Calculation Model

The software system is composed by following mode by now:

1.River net and pip-line flow analysis model

 River net and pip-line flow can be considered as 1-D problem, such models simulate the flow and sediment transport in the stream-wise direction of Channels or pipelines without solving the details over the cross-section. For a river basin, hydraulic structures, including reservoirs, dams and pumps can be tackled as nodes or elements in nets.? Since 1-D model is very efficient from the viewpoint of computation, they are often applied in the study of long-term dynamic simulation.

2.Two dimensional shallow water flow and transport model

 If the vertical variations of flow and sediment quantities in a water body are sufficiently small compared with horizontal length scale or can be determined analytically, the governing equation can be greatly simplified by integration in vertical direction, this leads to shallow water equations, or other forms of depth-averaged formulation. Two dimensional shallow water flow and transport models have been widely applied in practical engineering now-days.

3.Three dimensional free surface model

 The physical space is three dimensional in geometry, and complex flow structure analysis needs three dimensional modeling. Unstructured grids are adopted in horizontal direction to insure the flexibility for complex region. Since variables are defined as integral layer average in middle layer, very few layers are need in vertical direction for three dimensional free surface modeling. Both hydrostatic and non-hydrostatic modes are incorporated into the 3D model and non- hydrostatic mode show strong ability for simulation of short wave efficiently.

4.Multi-dimension coupling model

 Many problems in hydraulic engineering exhibit geometric irregularities and multiple length and time scale. To handle these characteristics effectively, the computational domain is often decomposed into sub-domains that may be represented by meshes with different grid densities and topologies, and treated by models with different dimensions and complexities. The multi-block algorithm, coupling of 1-D, 2-D and 3-D models, and integration of channel and watershed models are introduced in this modeling mode.

5.Sediment and transport problem

 Morphological processes under the actions of river runoff, tidal flow, and wave currents in estuaries are extremely complex. A large amount of fine-grained cohesive sediments coming from rivers are deposited in estuarine regions, forming mouth bars and reducing the flow depth in navigation channels. Salinity intrusion intensifies the deposition of cohesive sediments and affects the water quality. Fine-grained sediments also enter harbors and cause significant deposition there. Training works and dredging are necessary to maintain the navigation channels. Except for Sediment, Water temperature and salinity are among the key environmental conditions that significantly affect the physical, chemical, and biological processes in aquatic systems. Contaminant transport modeling for the fate and transport of water-quality constituents, such as temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen (DO), nitrogen, phosphorus, carbons, and toxicants, has been added to the HydroInfo systems.

6.Wave deformation problem

 The transformation of waves as they propagate toward shore is quite important, as in many cases coastal engineering design involves the forecasting of offshore wave climates or the use of offshore data. Two wave models are included in HydroInfo system, one is time dependent mild-slope equation including the combined effects of ref refraction, diffraction and reflection, the other is very efficient model based on the conservation law of wave energy using phase averaged approach, various driven and dissipation terms? are considered in the model.

7.Seepage flow and dam stability analysis

There are so many high earth-rock dams in China, including reservoirs dams, ash dams and tailing dams. Seepage flow analysis plays a very important role for dam stability analysis.? The Seepage model in the HydroInfo is fit for time dependent 2D and 3D,saturated and unsaturated Seepage flow in porous media. Except for Seepage flow modeling and slope stability analysis, mode of seismic dynamic response analysis method for high earth-rock dams and earthquake-induced liquefaction of earth-rock dams are included also. These tools are very helpful for seismic safety evaluation on earth-rock dams.


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